Introduction to Networking

Introduction to Networking

Table of Contents


How computers communicate over a network

Types of Computer Networks

Components of a Computer Network

Different Networking Topologies

Network Models



In today’s interconnected world, computer networking is the backbone of communication, facilitating emails, video streaming, as well as e-commerce. Moreover, understanding networking basics is crucial for success in the digital era. Furthermore, in this blog, we’ll delve into the introduction to interworking, starting with how computers communicate and the types of networks they form, from Local Area Networks (LANs) to Wide Area Networks (WANs). Further, we’ll explore the components that make up a network, different topologies used, and various network models like OSI and TCP/IP. Moreover, Join us on this journey through the heart of computer networking, where each concept unraveled brings us closer to mastering the digital landscape. Welcome aboard!

How computers communicate over a Network

Basically, networking is a process of interconnecting various devices with the intention of passing information from one or more of these devices to other or all of them. This could include, but not limited to, text, images, videos and voice calls, etc. Join CCNA Training to know more for computers communicate over a network through a series of steps: Computers communicate over a network through a series of steps:

Data Generation:

Therefore, it starts with the action a user takes on a device, like typing a message or clicking a webpage link.

Data Packaging:

Data is then divided and encapsulated into smaller chunks of information referred to as packets. Each packet also carries information not only about the data part of that packet, but also about where the data must be delivered and in what sequence other packets must be collected.


After that, the packets are simply sent through the network. This includes ascertaining the channel that would provide the shortest and most efficient means through which the data can pass through from the source the destination.


These are being transmitted over the network by different types of transmission media that may include cables or wireless signals or optical fibers.

Reception and Reassembly:

When the packets reach the end they are once again captured and then compiled by the recipient device into the original data.

Types of Computer Networks

Some common types of computer networks include:

Local Area Network (LAN):

LANs limit to a certain locality, which may comprise a collective of buildings for an organization or an organization’s campus. People popularly use them in homes, offices, and schools to connect computers, printers, servers, and other devices for communication purposes.

Wide Area Network (WAN):

WANs include a large geographic area where the network is spread to connect several Local Area Networks. A good example WDM is the internet since it connects computers and other networks all over the world.

Wireless Networks:

Wireless networks operate on the principle of utilizing radio signals to transmit data among devices without a direct cabling system. This is also evident from the Wi-Fi networks, Bluetooth, and other cellular networks as examples of wireless communication technologies.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):

A MAN is larger in coverage than a LAN and not as vast as a WAN and generally spans a city or metropolitan area. Businesses and service areas commonly utilize them, especially where meetings occur in various locations within a city.

Virtual Private Network (VPN):

VPNs create a private network on the backbone of another network, like the internet, providing remote access to any resource. Companies mainly apply it to enable staff members to connect to organizational networks from different locations.

Components of a Computer Network

A computer network comprises several key components that work together to facilitate communication and data exchange:


Nodes are the Connected Appliance of the network involving computers, servers, printers, routers etc.


Links represent the connections joining different nodes, so there is only one link type. These can be physical, wired with Ethernet cables, or non-physical, like radio frequency signals.


Switches are part of layered systems which aim at directing data packets within nodes of either a single or a large network. Operating at the data link layer of the OSI model, they assist in preventing traffic in unwanted areas.

Different Networking Topologies

Networking topologies represent a way in which nodes, or elements of the network, connect to each other, either physically or logically. Some common network topologies include:

Bus Topology:

In a bus topology, a single communication line known as the bus connects all nodes, and this implementation can have two connection methods. Data transmitted in the bus the node receives all messages in the bus but it only processes the messages intended for it.

Star Topology:

Here, every node is connected to a single hub or switch as in the design shown above Star topology.

Ring Topology:

In a ring topological configuration, each node is connected to two other neighboring nodes making the network almost a circular structure.

Mesh Topology: In a mesh topology, each node is connected to all the other nodes in the network with a probability depending on the number of nodes.

Network Models

Structural models describe the functioning of a network and its structure to give a general conceptual understanding of how the Network works. The two best known communication models are the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) model.

OSI Model:

However, decomposing the OSI model There is a hierarchy of seven layers in the OSI model where each layer works on a different aspect of the communication in the network. Layered from bottom up are as follows: Physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer.

TCP/IP Model:

TCP/IP model is a much simpler model, consisting of only four layers, which aims at providing the basic set of protocols needed for the Internet. Beginning from the base, we have the network interface layer, internet layer, transport layer, and the application layer.


Therefore, the concept of computer networking clearly marks one of the most important aspects of communication and cooperation in the contemporary world. Therefore, anyone seeking to demystify the complexities of modern networking should understand how computers communicate, the different types of networks, the components involved, the various topologies, and the network models. Moreover, it will be relevant to maintain the updates in the trends of computer networking as it relates to job demands and organization needs in today and in the future technological advancement systems. CCNA training in Chandigarh.

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